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How can made in China get out of the strange circle of "lack of skilled workers"

Abstract: "shortage of skilled workers" is a common phenomenon. From south to north, from east to west, there is a shortage of skilled workers. In order to resolve the "shortage of skilled workers", many places and enterprises attract and motivate skilled workers in the form of heavy rewards and high salaries. But even so, it is difficult to recruit highly skilled talents

in recent years, the number of college graduates has repeatedly reached new highs, with a year-on-year decrease of 1.5%. As graduation approaches every year, people from all walks of life will evaluate the difficulty of employment, and the "most difficult employment season in history" has been repeatedly broken through. In 2013, there were 6.99 million college graduates nationwide, which increased to 7.27 million in 2014, an increase of 280000 over the previous year; In 2015, 7.49 million college graduates, an increase of 220000 over the previous year; In 2016, there were 7.56 million college graduates, an increase of 170000 over the previous year; In 2017, the number of college graduates hit a record high and is expected to reach 7.95 million, an increase of 190000 over the previous year. According to experts' analysis, there are about 15million new workers entering the market in China this year, including 7.95 million college graduates. Coupled with resolving overcapacity, rural labor transfer, economic downward pressure and other factors, there are still worries in stability and great pressure when the fundamentals of the employment situation have not changed

however, there is a phenomenon worthy of attention, that is, with the difficulty of employment of college students, there is a shortage of skilled workers across the country. The 2017 talent blue book "China talent development report" released by the Social Science Literature Publishing House shows that the gap of senior skilled workers in China is as high as tens of millions, which has become a major bottleneck in the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry. In many grassroots areas, therefore, the treatment of waste plastic particles will become a hot topic in the future. The survey found that the situation of "shortage of skilled workers" is widespread. In Sichuan, the Provincial Department of human resources and social security statistics show that the total number of skilled talents in the province is 6.8 million, of which more than 1 million are highly skilled talents. High end leading skilled talents in modern manufacturing and other fields are scarce; In Zhejiang, a survey conducted by Hangzhou Federation of industry and Commerce in 2016 on hundreds of enterprises in the city's construction industry and traditional manufacturing industry showed that 71.43% of enterprises reported a shortage of medium and high-level skilled workers and a surplus of low skilled labor; In Tianjin, according to the feedback of labor market information, the supply and demand ratio of senior technical talents in enterprises has reached about 1:10

it should be pointed out that "shortage of skilled workers" is a common phenomenon. From south to north, from east to west, there is a shortage of skilled workers. Even ordinary skilled jobs have a large gap in many regions. In Guangdong Province, there were only a few thousand skilled workers such as electricians, fitters, lathe workers, welding workers and refrigeration workers in Guangdong at the end of the 1970s. Now the gap has reached fourorfive million people, including more than 100000 CNC technicians. On average, each senior technician in Shanghai has 7.33 positions to choose from, with a monthly salary of 3000-6000 yuan for ordinary technicians and 10000-20000 yuan for senior technicians. In the future, the average annual demand for senior technicians in Shanghai will be about 20000, most of which will be concentrated in industries with high added value, such as process design, machining, electrical equipment, optical electromechanical integration and so on

Liaoning is well-known throughout the country for its equipment manufacturing industry. There have been well-known national labor models such as Meng Tai, Wang Chonglun, Zhang Chengzhe, Wei Fengying, etc., which are fertile ground for the growth of vocational skilled talents. However, it is paradoxical that the major provinces in the equipment manufacturing industry lack technical personnel in the equipment manufacturing industry. The lack of skilled workers leads to weak innovation ability, poor R & D ability, low labor efficiency and management level in Liaoning manufacturing industry, which restricts the upgrading and transformation of equipment manufacturing industry. At present, the serious lack of middle and senior technicians has become the bottleneck of the development of Liaoning manufacturing industry

"surplus college students" and "serious shortage of skilled workers" are two extremes, with a huge contrast. In many provinces, the most difficult and helpless thing for enterprises is that it is difficult to recruit workers, and it is even more difficult to recruit skilled workers. Even in some areas along the southeast coast, a migrant worker who returns home with a worker will be rewarded 500-1000 yuan. In order to resolve the "shortage of skilled workers", many places and enterprises attract and motivate skilled workers in the form of heavy rewards and high salaries. But even so, it is difficult to recruit highly skilled talents

in recent years, with the adjustment of China's economic structure and the upgrading of industrial structure, all walks of life have higher and higher requirements for skilled workers, and the demand is also increasing. Correspondingly, the current situation of insufficient total amount and unreasonable structure of high skilled talents in China has been unable to meet the requirements of rapid economic and social development. According to statistics, in Japan, senior technicians account for 40% of the total industrial workforce, while Germany accounts for 50%, while in China, the proportion is only about 5%, and the national gap of senior technicians is nearly 10million. Many senior blue collar workers go out to "work in foreign countries", and Chinese technicians are "popular" in many countries. Due to the low overall quality and skill level of industrial workers, the current transformation rate of scientific and technological achievements and the contribution rate of scientific and technological progress to economic growth in China are not ideal, which is quite different from developed countries

throughout the history of world industrial development, all industrial powers are big countries with technicians and technicians. In order to realize the magnificent transformation from a large manufacturing country to a powerful manufacturing country, it is urgent for China to build a team of high-quality industrial workers and create more "big country craftsmen". The global production network continues to expand

why is there such a shortage of technicians? I think the imbalance in the structure of technical education is the deep reason

first, vocational and technical education is seriously lagging behind. During the two sessions in 2016, Zhao Yu, a deputy to the National People's Congress and chief technician of Beijing Benz, submitted two proposals, namely, suggestions on paying attention to vocational education and skilled personnel training, and suggestions on expanding vocational skills training and implementing skills employment project. Zhao Yu is currently the chief technician of auto assembly and adjustment of Beijing Benz Automobile Co., Ltd. and is a real technical backbone from the production line. In the previous three years, he has submitted "suggestions on learning from the school enterprise cooperation mode in developed countries to cultivate high-quality skilled talents", "suggestions on Improving Vocational Education and strengthening the cultivation of skilled talents" and "suggestions on issues related to the development of vocational education", which have attracted the attention and discussion of all parties. Zhao Yu said, "I have been working in the front line of modern manufacturing industry. I not only had the opportunity to study in Germany, but also went to Canada with the delegation of the Ministry of human resources and social security to investigate the development of vocational education. I deeply felt that the lagging development of our vocational education has led to the current situation of skilled talents, which has restricted the pace of China's progress towards a manufacturing power."

the second is the social prejudice against vocational and technical education. Attaching importance to general education and ignoring vocational education are basically the universal values of the whole society. Most parents of students will choose to go to high school when their children graduate from junior high school. Even if they choose the worst high school, they will not go to vocational high school. When students graduate from college or junior college, they are unwilling to work in factories even if they are unemployed. Public opinion is almost one-sided "light industry", ignoring the due publicity of the status and role of skilled workers, one-sided pursuit of high education, unwilling to be workers, resulting in a shortage of students in technical schools. Due to the social status and income status of workers, young people are in a fickle mood, unwilling to be workers and unwilling to take the initiative to learn technology

third, from the perspective of social education, the development of general education, vocational education and adult education is not coordinated. The development of secondary vocational education is much slower than that of ordinary high schools. The proportion of vocational education and general education is unbalanced, and the gap is too large. Most vocational schools are mainly oriented to social services, such as secretarial, accounting, tourism, business, foreign languages, etc. in terms of professional settings, few vocational schools are specialized in training front-line technicians for the manufacturing industry. In the face of strong demand for technicians, the source of students in technical schools is seriously insufficient. In society, there is also a lack of training institutions for skill upgrading, and workers have few opportunities and channels for further study, so it is difficult to improve their skills

in addition, enterprises also lack incentive mechanism. Some enterprises have not carried out professional title evaluation for many years, wages and skill levels are not linked, and employees' contributions are not linked to personal income, resulting in a weak atmosphere of skill learning and instability of enterprise technical workers. This is also an important reason for the lack of skilled workers

of course, it is basically the inclination of talent view. On the one hand, there is a narrow view of talents that only focuses on academic qualifications and professional titles. The concept of emphasizing diplomas and neglecting skills is widespread. If a student holds a graduation certificate from a vocational school, he can find a job in an enterprise, but it is impossible to enter a state-owned enterprise, public institution or civil servant examination. The widespread "academic discrimination" and "diploma discrimination" in society hinder the full development and utilization of human resources. On the other hand, the talent recognition standard is fixed and rigid. For a long time, senior skilled workers and skilled workers are not regarded as talents, or are regarded as marginalized talents

in order to cultivate more highly skilled talents who meet the requirements of industrial transformation and upgrading, Liaoning Province has launched skill master studios (stations) and strives to form a skill transmission and promotion network covering key industries and characteristic industries in the province by 2020. In order to support the workstations, the government will give 100000 yuan of financial support to each provincial skill master workstation at one time, and 100000 yuan of supporting funds to each approved national skill master studio for the purchase of training supplies, technical exchange and promotion costs. Driven by the policy, Xu Qiang of Shenyang Blower Group, Cui Ligang of Liaoning Toyota Jinbei technician college, and Zhong Shuanghong of Wafangdian Bearing Group Co., Ltd. have established skill master studios in equipment manufacturing, machining, information technology and other industries respectively. At present, Liaoning has established 20 national skill master studios and 60 provincial skill master workstations. The studio has attracted a large number of technical "cattle" in various fields, including winners of the Chinese skills award, national technical experts, and senior technicians who enjoy special allowances from the State Council and the provincial government. They have played their strengths in enterprise production, technology research, invention and innovation, transformation of scientific and technological achievements, and apprenticeship

at the same time, we should speed up the reform of technical schools, further establish the idea of training serving employment, and guide technical schools to face the labor market and undertake the task of reemployment training. Strengthen "school enterprise cooperation", cultivate new vocational education mode, sign training agreement with enterprises, adopt "order training" method, customize "blue collar" technicians in special fields for enterprises, and cultivate more practical talents

more importantly, if the whole society wants to change the concept of talents, what needs to be checked from the top? Next, let's explain in detail the matters that need to be checked in the use of the universal tensile strength tester of steel wire rope. Design talent training and evaluation strategies, and build a modern vocational education system, so that vocational education students can have a skill in hand, have prospects for employment, and have prospects for further education; Pay attention to and respect skilled workers, and establish a perfect system from enrollment to employment, from salary guarantee to rights protection, so that skilled workers also have reliable social security and stable growth space; Change the trend that only diplomas and schools select and employ people, and truly not only diplomas but abilities, so that vocational education students have more choices. The environment has changed and the concept has changed, so that vocational education can really usher in spring. We should break the shackles and barriers of workers' success, give those skilled workers with outstanding contributions their due social status, make skilled workers truly become the "meat and potatoes" of enterprises, stimulate the pride, honor and sense of front-line employees, and make contributions to the world of made in China

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